When you think of Turkey, cities like Istanbul, Cappadocia, and Antalya might first come to mind. However, the country is also a treasure trove of ancient ruins, and one lesser-known, yet awe-inspiring site is Pergamon. Situated in the Aegean region in the modern-day town of Bergama, this ancient city offers a captivating journey through time. It is a goldmine of archaeological wonders, presenting a panorama of Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine history. If you’re in search of an excursion that combines the allure of antiquity with the charm of a small Turkish town, look no further.

A Brief History of Pergamon

The origins of Pergamon date back to the early 3rd century BC, when it was the capital of the Attalid dynasty. Later, it fell under Roman rule, before ultimately becoming a part of the Byzantine Empire. Pergamon was a renowned cultural and political center during its peak, boasting libraries that rivaled those of ancient Alexandria. Its wealth was visible in its monumental architecture, including theatres, temples, and palaces.

Must-See Sites

The Acropolis

Dominating the skyline, the Acropolis of Pergamon is a sprawling complex accessible by a cable car—a modern convenience that contrasts strikingly with the ancient ruins you’re about to explore. The centerpiece is the Altar of Zeus, famous for its intricate frieze depicting the battle between the Gods and the Giants. Though the original altar is housed in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, the site itself offers panoramic views of the city below.

The Theatre

One of the steepest ancient theatres in the world, the Theatre of Pergamon can accommodate up to 10,000 spectators. Imagine yourself sitting among the tiers, watching a play unfold as the sun sets over the Aegean Sea—a perfect blend of history and nature’s beauty.


This ancient medical center dedicated to Asclepius, the god of healing, was one of the most famous therapeutic and healing centers in the ancient world. It comprises a theatre, library, and even a tunnel called the “Crypt,” which was believed to purify patients before they underwent treatment.

Red Basilica

Also known as the Serapeum, this structure initially served as a temple for Egyptian gods and was later converted into a Christian basilica. Its imposing red-brick façade, hence the name, is a picturesque backdrop for photography.

Local Cuisine and Culture

No trip to Pergamon is complete without indulging in some local Turkish cuisine. Head into the town of Bergama to savor an array of Turkish delights—from kebabs to baklava—in quaint cafes that line the cobblestone streets. Don’t forget to try Bergama Tostu, a local version of a grilled cheese sandwich, to tickle your taste buds.

Practical Tips for Your Visit

  • Best Time to Visit: Spring and Autumn are ideal for avoiding the scorching summer heat and the winter chill.
  • Getting There: The nearest airport is in Izmir, about 100 km away. From there, you can take a bus or hire a taxi to Bergama.
  • Accommodation: Various options ranging from budget hostels to boutique hotels are available in Bergama.
  • Guided Tours: To get the most out of your visit, consider hiring a guide who can offer in-depth knowledge about the history and architecture of Pergamon.


With its vast array of historical sites, stunning vistas, and vibrant local culture, Pergamon offers something for everyone. Whether you’re a history buff, an architecture enthusiast, or simply a curious traveler, this ancient city is an unforgettable addition to any Turkish itinerary.

So, ready to step back in time and uncover the secrets of ancient Pergamon? Get in touch with us today to book your trip to this marvelous ancient city!



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